Weekly Report 1020-Proposed Structure and Annotated Bibliography

Weekly Report 1020

Proposed Structure of the Thesis and Annotated Bibliography


Structure of the Thesis

Introduction: Thesis + Abstract

Confucianism in early-modern Japan (Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods) as both the indigenous origin of Japanese proto-nationalism and the mechanism that localized western Nationalism.

Reference of Kiri Paramore’s Japanese Confucianism + primary source analysis of early-modern Japanese intellectual history.

Chapter 1: Discussing the notion of Nationalism

The interpretation of Nationalism as an exogenous ideology. The difference between Nationalism in Japan and the conventional Civic Nationalism.

The notion of “the nationalism with Japanese characteristics”, contrary to egalitarianism within the domestic society and among different nations.

Chapter 2: Japanese Confucianism as the origin of indigenous proto-nationalism (primary source analysis)

Confucianism in Japan as the administrative principle in the public sphere, and as the official interpretation of history.

  • Hayashi Gaho, and Hoko (Kai Hentai): The reverse of Hua-Yi dichotomy and the prototype of Japanese national superiority.
  • Yamaga Soko (Chucho Jijitsu): The historical account of Japan’s status as the political and intellectual “central realm”. The discussion of trade between the Japanese archipelago and the continent.

The Confucianism doctrine of the hierarchical stratification in either social circumstance or international relations.

Chapter 3: Japanese Confucianism as the mechanism customizing Western Nationalism (primary source analysis)

Confucianism as a liberal instrument in Japan of introducing exotic ideas, merchandizes, and technologies.

  • Ogyu Sorai (Bendo & Benmei): The Confucian notion of “name (‘mei/ming’)” as justification. Edo intellectuals and bureaucrats utilized the notion of “name” to incorporate west-oriented ideologies and technologies to early-modern Japan.

Chapter 4: Evolution of Japanese early-modern proto-nationalism

The integration of indigenous Confucianism-prompted proto-nationalism with exogenous notions of imperialism and colonialism. The creation of the nationalism with Japanese characteristics, which produced fascism and militarism.

Chapter 5: Empirical analysis with the lens of modern politics

The authoritarian nature of Confucianism for the social stratification and hierarchical obedience its ideology proposes.

The comparative analysis of Confucianism in the contemporary Japanese and Chinese politics, as a taboo or as the administrative principle.



Annotated Bibliography

General Readership (primary references):

  • Hayashi, Gaho. Kai Hentai. Tokyo: Waseda University Digital Archive. http://archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/ri08/ri08_02559/.

Hayashi Gaho along with his son Hoko, gave a historic account of the Manchu invasion of Ming-China and the collapse of Han-Chinese regime on the continent. The main gist of Hayashi’s argument is that the resistance force of the Ming regime, which had been the political and intellectual superior state, beseeched Tokugawa Japan’s military intervention in the incident. Hayashi emphasized the dynastical change in China and Han-Chinese’s inability of preserving their political regime, economic prosperity, and intellectual products, indicating the degeneration of the Chinese civilization and thus the Japanese dominance of the cultural sphere.

  • Ogyu Sorai. Benmei. Mastuyama: Ehime University Digital Archive. http://www.lib.ehime-u.ac.jp/SUZUKA/014/001.html.
  • Ogyu, Sorai. Distinguishing the Way (Bendo). Translated by Olof G. Lidin. Tokyo: Sophia University, 1970.

Ogyu raised a particular notion of “mei (ming)” (“name” in English) in both writings, as he emphasized the function of “mei” to justify actions and believes. Ogyu believed that justification through “mei” would consolidate morality to facilitate a harmonious society. Another important notion Ogyu raised was that the “do (dao)” (“way” in English) was created by sages/princes (junzi), who were superior to commoners. He referred to fundamentalist Confucianism of sage kings’ rule, and rejected Neo-Confucians’ interpretation of naturalistically existed “do” in the universe.

As a believer of classical Confucianism, Ogyu Sorai reiterated the importance of stratified social hierarchy; he argued that the sages who created “do” were fundamentally different from the commoners, and they ought to govern the less educated public with privilege. Same notion could be extended to the international circumstance, while civilized nations held the responsibility to nurture the less civilized communities. Ogyu suggested that, the leader of country should well justify the political principles and implement the “do” of ancient sages with the “mei”, in order to maintain the centripetal piety and hierarchical obedience.

  • Yamaga Soko. Chucho Jijitsu, volumn 1. Tokyo: National Diet Library Digital Collection. http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/754766/2.
  • Yamaga Soko. Chucho Jijitsu, volumn 2. Tokyo: National Diet Library Digital Collection. http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/754767/2.

Yamaga Soko shared the same interest with Hayashi of constructing political and social ideology from historical narrations. Yamaga drew his argument from the Manchu invasion of China as well, and he argued that the similar incidents, which resulted in dynastic change and barbarian occupation had occurred previously to China, never happen to Japan. Because Japan as a divinely blessed nation-state (not through the Westphalian notion) acquired geographical advantage, economic affluence, and intellectual treasure. Yamaga’s argument marked the early emergence of Japanese national superiority against other neighboring states in Asia.

General Readership (secondary references):

  • De Bary, William Theodore. Neo-Confucian Orthodoxy and the Learning of the Mind-and-Heart. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.

Beginning with Yuan-era Mongol rulers’ sponsorship of Confucian intellectuals, De Bary’s book goes far beyond more easily available Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming scholarships, discussing many lesser known, but no less important scholars in Song and Yuan Dynasties. De Bary emphasized how the intellectual debates in medieval and early-modern China could not fit easily into Western philosophical dialectics, and offered some tentative ideas about how major texts might have changed the nature of Confucianism over the centuries. De Bary’s account rejected the orientalist perspective of understanding the notion of Nationalism in East Asia.

  • Freiner, Nicole. The Social and Gender Politics of Confucian Nationalism: Women and the Japanese Nation-State. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Freiner defines a new interpretation of nationalism in Japan, with a focus on the ways, in which the Japanese state has utilized Confucian philosophy to create a Japanese national identity. Freiner examines the key policy areas of education and social security alongside the roles that women have played in these initiatives and the impact of these programs on women. Freiner shows clearly how a household-centered Confucian orientation in Japan challenges many common assumptions made in politics, especially those presumptions that link the participation of women in politics to critiques of gender roles and that regard democracy as requiring liberal values of individualism. Freiner’s argument indicates the difference between nationalism in Japan and the civic nationalism.

  • Paramore, Kiri. Japanese Confucianism: A Cultural History. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Paramore’s argument rejects the orientalist interpretation of Japan’s social and political modernization, upon which certain scholars excessively emphasize the impact of western technologies and ideologies. Paramore noticed the indigenous factors that led towards Japanese nationalism rather than the western-centric account. Paramore further suggested that the form of presentation and interpretation of Confucianism in Japan had been mutative, and Confucianism obtained different roles and performed different functions in Japan before the militaristic regime collapsed.

Reference Sources:

  • Bellah, Robert N. Tokugawa Religion: The Values of Pre-Industrial Japan. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1957.

In contrast to the conventionally received notion, Bellah argues that Japanese modernization did not initiate with Commodore Perry’s arrival in 1868, and rapidly developed because of the superb Japanese ability for imitation. In contrast, he argues that the native doctrines of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shinto encouraged forms of logic and ideology necessary for economic development.

  • Nakai, Kate Wildman. Shogunal Politics: Arai Hakuseki and the Premises of Tokugawa Rule. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Arai Hakuseki, a Confucian political advisor to the Tokugawa shogun, played an important role in the Tokugawa Bakufu. Hakuseki participated in major policies on currency, foreign trade, and domestic administration, and he tried to enhance the Shogun’s authority both within the bureaucratic system and as a national ruler. The following Shogun retained Hakuseki’s fiscal, monetary and trade policies, but promptly reversed the measures designed to make the Shogun a king-like figure and challenged the role of the Emperor.

Nakai examines Hakuseki’s policy successes and failures in the context of bifurcated and ambiguous distribution of authority between the Tokugawa Shogun and the Emperor. She also traces the influence of Confucian political theory on Hakuseki’s policies and on his defense against criticism. Nakai draws upon Hakuseki’s autobiography, diary and the reportorial letters of a contemporary bureaucrat for his administrative experiences. Nakai’s sources also include Hakuseki’s historical works and memorials as the theoretical basis for his policies influenced by Confucianism.

  • Stegewerns, Dick. Nationalism and Internationalism in Imperial Japan: Autonomy, Asian Brotherhood, or World Citizenship? New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.

Throughout the history of modern Japan there has been a continuous struggle to create an integrated conception of a politically or culturally autonomous Japan and to connect such Japan with the rest of the pluralistic world. Stegewerns aims to scrutinize Japanese nationalist and internationalist rhetoric by means of comparatively constant factors as individual views of humanity, civilization, progress, the nation and the exotic world, thus developing approaches towards the balance between Japanese nationalism and internationalism.

  • Totman, Conrad D. Japan Before Perry: A Short History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Totman argues that by 1853 Japan had been transformed from a sparsely populated land of illiterate tribal communities into an elaborate and structured commercial society with sustaining urbanization and an array of sophisticated intellectual production. Totman examines the origins of Japanese civilization and explores in detail the classical, medieval, and early-modern epochs.

  • Yamashita, Samuel Hideo. “Reading the New Tokugawa Intellectual Histories,” in Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1996. pp. 1-48.

The first among four interpretive community Yamashita proposed is what he refers as the “modernization” school, as scholars in this community have been preoccupied with Japan’s modernization and have offered impressive and canonical accounts of early modern and modern Japan (which is the Tokugawa period). The second scholarly community is associated with William Theodore de Bary, who recently passed away and had defined the concept of Japanese spirituality as dynamic traditions. Yamashita defines the third group as scholars who embrace the first or the second variety of the intellectual history and compose two approaches into the third interpretive community. Yamashita calls them as the new intellectual historians. The last faction includes the postmodern theorists, whose analysis of primary resources from the Tokugawa period have been inspired by postmodern ideologies and theories in sociology or anthropology.